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The emergence Wolhyniens

Wolhynien: in the northwest Ukraine, a historical, multi-cultural landscape of the size of the Land of the Federal Republic Bavaria and somewhat more.
Here about 250,000 German inhabitants lived 1915 ago.
This historical landscape between nose and Dnjeper is in the northwest of the Ukraine. The area belonged in 9. and 10. Century the Kiewer realm on and formed the independent duchy Lodomerien with the capital Vladimir Wolynskij up to the combination with Galizien 1188.
Geographically seen it concerns in the north an area, which is even and often swampy. In the south against it hilly up to a height of 400m NN, partly quilt with the main river Pripjat into the black sea flows and further smaller rivers how; Turija, tyr, Goryn, Slutsch, Ush, Teterew intersperses.
In the Ritter geographical-statistic encyclopedia of Johannes Penzler of the yearly 1910 is 13,000 Germans as capital Shitomir (7,700 km2) as a number of inhabitants of those of it were indicated of 434.725. Large Brockhaus of 1935 indicates that in Ukrainian portion the Wolhyniens of the yearly 1926 - 80,087 German inhabitants, converted 43% of the total population resided.

German immigrants settle Wolhynien

For centuries Germans settled the far areas of Russia. The settlement areas with the highest concentration of German inhabitants were at the Volga banks, because of the black sea, in Bessarabien and in Wolhynien. Smaller settlement areas were at the Baltic Sea, in order to find pc. Petersburg and in the Caucasus. At present the First World War was there a anti-German agitation here. Thus many were banished this settler by the Russians and had to establish itself in Siberia or Kazakhstan.
Like the Polish and Hungarian rulers also prince Daniel called German buyers and craftsmen into his country.
A majority of these German immigrants were protestanten (Lutheraner) or Mennoniten. In some areas settlers followed brother municipalities (Moravier) consisting of Jews, catholics, Babtisten and members of the reformed church of the Hernhuter.
Because of the enormous size of Russia also the history of the there living Germans is versatile and complex. They came from different provinces of Germany and lived over several centuries in different parts of the Russian Zarenreichs, so that their history to temporal can be differentiated at the best into three sections of the immigration:

1. 1736 -1769 - Middle Volga, Petersburg, Woronesch,

2. 1787 -1823 - Suedukraine, Krim, Bessarabien, northern Caucasus,

3. 1830 -1870 - Wolhynien, Volga area.

Most settlers came in the time until 1823. The Zarin Katharina II., the large one (born on 2 May 1729 in Stettin, died on 17 November 1796 in Zarskoje Sele - today Puschkin; Reign: 1762-1796) originating from the house notion Zerbst prince Christian August von notion Anhalt-Zerbst), let enlist due to its edict from 22 July 1763 in Germany settler (as Colonists were designated) and operated so an intensive settlement politics.

"Wolhyniendeutsche" is to a large extent "Niederdeutsche" from the Weichselgegend and from Pommerellen; Central German one from Schlesien and Poland and upper German (Swabia) from central Poland. Mastermoderately thus the "Wolhyniendeutsche" north Germans are, after the religion Evangelist all. While the Volga and "Schwarzmeerdeutsche" in large closed villages settled, "Wolhyniendeutsche" had been settled to a large extent in scattered housing estates and single yards. The less favourable the community life. In the Soviet time however the einzelhaeuser were formed, shifted "and closed Kolchossiedlungen. This Colonists should the fallow-lying country southeast from Moscow, particularly along the Volga, arable make. Large regions at the Volga, which were already conquered 1556 by the Russians, lay still completely unkultiviert.

The soil was very fruitful and Katharina II. wanted with the settlement of Kolonisten, this wilderness to make arable. They created themselves under heaviest conditions, out before keep-drawn soil a new homeland and made from forest, sand and sump fruitful field.

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